The substitution of traditional energy sources with solar, wind, hydroelectric, and other renewables has prompted countries, particularly those reliant on conventional energy, to reevaluate their standing in the international arena

studies within international relations. The shift towards protectionist approaches over international and supranational strategies in strategic frameworks, coupled with heightened competition for resources and evolving supply chain dynamics, are pivotal indicators of the changing international power dynamics. This emerging shift, increasingly apparent in recent times, has prompted a renewed focus on geopolitical studies centred around energy. Recent studies have highlighted technology-driven and renewable energy-focused approaches, diverging from traditional resource-centric perspectives.

Tracing this evolution is crucial for comprehending diplomatic advancements and crafting future strategies at individual, institutional, and state levels. The post-pandemic era has profoundly influenced both contemporary media narratives and academic research. It has also generated a distinct dynamic within the global equation. In assessing this shift, referencing the concept of globalization, which was prominently featured on our agenda in the pre-pandemic era, can aid in gaining deeper insights into the present landscape. The paramount distinguishing factor of the current period from previous epochs is the element of speed.

In contrast to the past, when global-scale events occurred over lengthy periods, today, the duration of such events has significantly shortened. The swift structural transformations in the global order will elevate the importance of adaptation and foresight in the upcoming period. A cursory examination of these generational shifts can heighten our awareness within this context. The modern incarnation of the United Nations (UN) organization took shape in the 1940s, following the conclusion of World War II. The victorious nations of the war sought to reconfigure the world according to their own interests.

During this period, the UN Security Council, serving as the ultimate authority for major decisions impacting the international system, also came into existence. Another pivotal event that reshaped the global system was the 1973 Oil Crisis, which thrust energy security and interstate tensions to the forefront, marking another significant juncture in the trajectory of globalization.

The paramount distinguishing factor of the current period from previous epochs is the element of speed

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the subsequent end of the Cold War ushered in an era of unpredictability. The once bipolar international system gave way to a unipolar world order centered around the United States. As a supranational entity, the European Union expanded its reach into Eastern Europe. Regional organizations like ASEAN have broadened and deepened their scope. Indeed, these developments instilled a strong belief that globalization was rapidly gaining momentum. In addition to states, the growing influence of international corporations and non-governmental organizations in the international system has introduced a new dimension to globalization. Globalization has expanded beyond state-level interactions to encompass relationships between states and individuals, as well as among individuals themselves.

The notion of the world as one interconnected village was shattered by the September 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center in the US. Indeed, following this attack, the primary focus on the international agenda shifted from the idea of a global world government to the imperative of waging war on terror. The international system, overshadowed by security concerns, has grappled with political instability. While states and international organizations were fixated on security concerns, the Arab Spring of 2011 introduced a new dimension. In this context, countries possessing the world’s major energy resources have experienced significant political change.

Within the framework of our review of major events in international relations that impact the global arena, a critical observation becomes apparent: whereas significant changes historically unfolded over the course of a single generation, we are now witnessing multiple transformations occurring within a shorter timeframe. In this context, the transition to the UN order in the 1940s and the 1973 Oil Crisis, examined within the primary sub-sample, occurred within a span of 30 years. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the 2001 World Trade Center attack, analyzed within the second sub-sample, transpired within a mere 12 years.

Lastly, the Arab Spring in 2011, evaluated within the third sub-sample, unfolded in just 10 years. Across all the mentioned time periods, one can discern a notable trend: the acceleration of change on a global scale, with energy geopolitics providing a significant arena for observing this phenomenon. The delineated periods within which we categorize globalization yield crucial insights when assessing the post-pandemic era. In this context, it is apparent that as we near the present day, the pace of change accelerates, demanding a more agile approach to addressing global events. Aside from the accelerated pace of major disruptions, the shift from conventional to renewable energy has emerged as a pivotal area in the study of energy geopolitics.

The substitution of traditional energy sources with solar, wind, hydroelectric, and other renewables has prompted countries, particularly those reliant on conventional energy, to reevaluate their standing in the international arena. This transition signifies a new era in global energy geopolitics, where technology and innovation wield decisive influence. Adopting a comprehensive approach to curbing carbon emissions from the global energy system has become imperative, necessitating the limitation of fossil fuel production and the expansion of low-carbon energy technologies.

All these contemporary issues highlight the emergence of new geopolitical power centres centred around technology and agility. Acknowledging the multitude of innovations introduced during this period, it is essential to recognize that critical energy regions like the “Fertile Crescent” will maintain their significance for the foreseeable future. Moreover, pivotal junctures in international relations will continue to occur at an accelerated pace. In this process, it is evident that studies in energy geopolitics will play a critical role in comprehending the global energy transition and formulating effective strategies.